Author(s): Singh M, Mensah GA, Bakris G, Singh M, Mensah GA, Bakris G
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Abstract Significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical physiology of primary hypertension. This article presents an overview of the physiology of normal blood pressure control and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that predispose individuals and populations to primary hypertension. The role of genetics, environment, and the gene-environment interaction is discussed. The spectrum of changes in physiologic states that result in chronic increases of arterial blood pressure are reviewed. The nature and characteristics of feedback loops and the primary modulating systems, the central and peripheral nervous systems, and circulating and tissue hormones are reviewed. The role of the endothelium of the artery and its production of endothelin, nitric oxide, angiotensin II, as well as other vasoactive substances in response to various stimuli, is also discussed. A unifying pathway for the development of hypertension and the practical implications for the prevention and control of hypertension are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Cardiol Clin
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research