Author(s): Carr A, Samaras K, Chisholm DJ, Cooper DA, Carr A, Samaras K, Chisholm DJ, Cooper DA
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Abstract HIV-1 protease-inhibitor treatments are associated with a syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, central adiposity, breast hypertrophy in women, hyperlipidaemia, and insulin resistance. The catalytic region of HIV-1 protease, to which protease inhibitors bind, has approximately 60\% homology to regions within two proteins that regulate lipid metabolism: cytoplasmic retinoic-acid binding protein type 1 (CRABP-1) and low density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (LRP). We hypothesise that protease inhibitors inhibit CRABP-1-modified, and cytochrome P450 3A-mediated synthesis of cis-9-retinoic acid, a key activator of the retinoid X receptor; and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor type gamma (PPAR-gamma) heterodimer, an adipocyte receptor that regulates peripheral adipocyte differentiation and apoptosis. Protease-inhibitor binding to LRP would impair hepatic chylomicron uptake and triglyceride clearance by the endothelial LRP-lipoprotein lipase complex. The resulting hyperlipidaemia contributes to central fat deposition (and in the breasts in the presence of oestrogen), insulin resistance, and, in susceptible individuals, type 2 diabetes. Understanding the syndrome's pathogenesis should lead to treatment strategies and to the design of protease inhibitors that do not cause this syndrome.
This article was published in Lancet
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research