alexa Pathogensis related (PR) proteins defense mechanism
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Author(s): Ebrahim S

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Proteins encoded by the host plant induced under pathological or related conditions are termed pathogenesis-related proteins. These proteins display high-degree of pathogen specificity and are coordinated at the level of transcription. Induction of PR’s when measured on a time scale is a late event and its effect on the early infection is limited. Application of chemicals or microbially derived metabolites that mimic the effect of pathogen infection induces both PR’s and acquired resistance. Numerous Pathogenesis Related proteins have been detected in rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, barley, tomato, pearl millet, bean, chickpea, soybean, pepper, sunflower, carrot, pepper, grape vine, alfalfa, celery, rubber and many other plants. The localization and distribution of the PR is related directly to the method and nature of the pathogen infection. The PR’s have been classified into various families based on the shared sequence homology. PR’s can also be grouped into different classes based on the migration in the native PAGE, reaction with specific antisera and mRNA probes. PR’s have also been classified based on the biological activity of the induced defense proteins. Seventeen different groups of PR’s have been identified. Several studies have revealed that PR proteins are induced in response more rapidly in resistant interactions. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes induce PR proteins upon entry into the incompatible host. Several PR genes in the form of cDNAs have been identified and characterized during acquisition of systemic resistance in plants against pathogens. A number of molecules derived from pathogens can serve as elicitors of PR gene expression. In addition to the already existing complexity, some signals are interdependent. Several PR genes encoding PR proteins have been identified in different plants. They are almost silent in healthy plants. Generally most PR protein genes belong to multi gene families. Pathogen induced PR gene expression often occurs at the level of transcription. The occurrence of multi gene families, localization in the apoplast as well as in the vacuolar compartment and differential induction by endogenous signaling compounds indicate an important role in defense not only against pathogen infection but also in eliciting acquired resistance. Several PR proteins like the PR-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been shown to inhibit growth of fungi. Large groups of PR genes which have been well characterized can be put to use to produce plants with better responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Understanding stress signals and transduction mechanisms and identification of additional defense genes will provide opportunities for enhanced resistance engineering in crop plants.

This article was published in Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances. and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

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