alexa Pathomechanism of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy: a multidisciplinary investigation based on clinical, biomechanical, histologic, and biologic assessments.
Neurology

Neurology

Journal of Spine

Author(s): Sairyo K, Biyani A, Goel V, Leaman D, Booth R Jr,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract STUDY DESIGN: A multidisciplinary study involving clinical, histologic, biomechanical, biologic, and immunohistologic approaches. OBJECTIVE.: To clarify the pathomechanism of hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The most common spinal disorder in elderly patients is lumbar spinal canal stenosis, causing low back and leg pain, and paresis. Canal narrowing, in part, results from hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. Although histologic and biologic literature on this topic is available, the pathomechanism of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy is still unknown. METHODS: The thickness of 308 ligamenta flava at L2/3, L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 levels of 77 patients was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships between thickness, age, and level were evaluated. Histologic evaluation was performed on 20 ligamentum flavum samples, which were collected during surgery. Trichrome and Verhoeff-van Gieson elastic stains were performed for each ligamentum flavum to understand the degree of fibrosis and elastic fiber status, respectively. To understand the mechanical stresses in various layers of ligamentum flavum, a 3-dimensional finite element model was used. Von Mises stresses were computed, and values between dural and dorsal layers were compared. There were 10 ligamenta flava collected for biologic assessment. Using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta messenger ribonucleic acid expression was quantitatively measured. The cellular location of TGF-beta was also confirmed from 18 ligamenta flava using immunohistologic techniques. RESULTS: The ligamentum flavum thickness increased with age, however, the increment at L4/5 and L3/4 levels was larger than at L2/3 and L5/S1 levels. Histology showed that as the ligamentum flavum thickness increased, fibrosis increased and elastic fibers decreased. This tendency was more predominant along the dorsal side. Von Misses stresses revealed that the dorsal fibers of ligamentum flavum were subjected to higher stress than the dural fibers. This was most remarkably observed at L4/5. The largest increase in ratio observed between the dorsal and dural layer was approximately 5-fold in flexion at L4/5 in flexion. Expression of TGF-beta was observed in all ligamenta flava, however, the expression decreased as the ligamentum flavum thickness increased. Immunohistochemistry showed that TGF-beta was released by the endothelial cells, not by fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrosis is the main cause of ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, and fibrosis is caused by the accumulation of mechanical stress with the aging process, especially along the dorsal aspect of the ligamentum flavum. TGF-beta released by the endothelial cells may stimulate fibrosis, especially during the early phase of hypertrophy.
This article was published in Spine (Phila Pa 1976) and referenced in Journal of Spine

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version