alexa Pathways leading to muscle insulin resistance--the muscle--fat connection.
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Author(s): Sell H, Eckel J, DietzeSchroeder D

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Abstract Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. This review focuses on obesity as one of the major environmental factors contributing to the development of diabetes. It has become evident that adipose tissue represents an active secretory organ capable of releasing a variety of cytokines such as TNFalpha, IL-6, adiponectin and other still unknown factors that might constitute the missing link between adipose tissue and insulin resistance. In fact, adipocyte-derived factors are significantly increased in obesity and represent good predictors of the development of type 2 diabetes. The negative crosstalk between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells leads to disturbances in muscle cell insulin signalling and insulin resistance involving major pathways in inflammation, cellular stress and mitogenesis. Positive regulators of insulin sensitivity include the adipocyte hormone adiponectin and inhibitors of inflammatory pathways such as JNK-, IKK- and ERK-inhibitors. In summary, a better knowledge of intracellular and intercellular mechanisms by which adipose tissue affects skeletal muscle cell physiology may help to develop new strategies for diabetes treatment. This article was published in Arch Physiol Biochem and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

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