alexa Pathways underlying neuroprogression in bipolar disorder: focus on inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Pharmacological Reports

Author(s): Berk M, Kapczinski F, Andreazza AC, Dean OM, Giorlando F,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract There is now strong evidence of progressive neuropathological processes in bipolar disorder (BD). On this basis, the current understanding of the neurobiology of BD has shifted from an initial focus on monoamines, subsequently including evidence of changes in intracellular second messenger systems and more recently to, incorporating changes in inflammatory cytokines, corticosteroids, neurotrophins, mitochondrial energy generation, oxidative stress and neurogenesis into a more comprehensive model capable of explaining some of the clinical features of BD. These features include progressive shortening of the inter-episode interval with each recurrence, occurring in consort with reduced probability of treatment response as the illness progresses. To this end, emerging data shows that these biomarkers may differ between early and late stages of BD in parallel with stage-related structural and neurocognitive alterations. This understanding facilitates identification of rational therapeutic targets, and the development of novel treatment classes. Additionally, these pathways provide a cogent explanation for the efficacy of seemingly diverse therapies used in BD, that appear to share common effects on oxidative, inflammatory and neurotrophic pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This article was published in Neurosci Biobehav Rev and referenced in Journal of Pharmacological Reports

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords