Author(s): Egan DN, Beppu L, Radich JP, Egan DN, Beppu L, Radich JP
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Abstract Despite the successes of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in improving outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph + ALL), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) continues to be an important and potentially curative option for selected patients with either disease. After HSCT, TKIs are increasingly being used to treat or prevent disease relapse, and practice patterns suggest that these TKIs are often chosen empirically without regard to pre-HSCT mutation status. We investigated whether ABL kinase domain mutations persist after transplantation and, thus, whether pre-HSCT mutation status should inform the selection of post-HSCT TKIs in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed adults who underwent allogeneic HSCT for CML and Ph + ALL at our institution between 2000 and 2010, and we identified subjects who had detectable BCR-ABL transcripts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as well as available RNA for Sanger sequencing of the ABL kinase domain, in both the pre- and post-HSCT settings. In total, 95 CML and 20 Ph + ALL patients with positive PCR transcripts were identified, of which 10 (10.5\%) and 4 (20.0\%), respectively, were found to have pre-HSCT ABL kinase mutations known to confer TKI resistance. In 9 (64.2\%) of these 14 patients, the same kinase mutation was also detectable at an average time of 191 days after HSCT. Seven (50.0\%) of the 14 harboring mutations had relapsed/refractory disease by last follow-up, of which, in retrospect, 6 had received a predictably ineffective TKI within the first 100 days after transplantation based on our mutation analysis. These data support the idea that pre-existing mutations in the ABL kinase domain, frequently associated with resistance to TKIs and prevalent in a transplantation population, are persistently detectable in the majority of patients after transplantation. We propose that such resistance patterns should be considered when selecting TKIs in the post-HSCT setting, including clinical trials of post-HSCT TKI prophylaxis. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This article was published in Biol Blood Marrow Transplant
and referenced in Journal of Oncology Translational Research