Author(s): Dart AB, Schall A, Gibson IW, BlydtHansen TD, Birk PE
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Abstract BACKGROUND: In pediatric recipients, the pathophysiology of chronic renal allograft injury is poorly understood. METHODS: We studied the evolution and determinants of tubulointerstitial, vascular, and glomerular injury in 240 pediatric protocol renal allograft biopsies during the first 5 years posttransplant. RESULTS: Chronic tubulointerstitial injury (ci, ct) developed predominantly during the first 12 months posttransplant, whereas chronic vascular damage (cv, and arteriolar hyalinosis [ah]) and global glomerulosclerosis (gs) became increasingly prevalent at 25 to 36 months and beyond. Chronic interstitial lesions were associated with acute rejection and borderline histology (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, P<0.04), recipient body surface area less than 1.0 m2 (OR 3.6, P<0.05), and obesity (OR 2.0, P<0.03). Determinants of ct were acute rejection (OR 2.6, P=0.02) and acute tubular necrosis (OR 2.8, P<0.04). Vascular fibrous intimal thickening and ah were associated with donor hypertension (OR 3.6, P=0.001) and recipient body surface area less than 1.0 m (OR 2.6, P=0.02), respectively. The severity of ah correlated with the incidence of gs (r=0.32, P<0.0001), with 7.8\% gs for ah0, 14.3\% gs for ah1, 60.0\% gs for ah2, and 95.5\% gs for ah3 (median values). Antibody induction conferred protection from ci (OR 0.31, P=0.008), ct (OR 0.33, P=0.002), and ah (OR 0.12, P<0.001) progression. CONCLUSIONS: By 5 years posttransplant, pediatric renal allografts manifest a substantial burden of tubulointerstitial and microvascular injury. These lesions are associated with donor hypertension, acute inflammation, renal hypoperfusion, obesity, and calcineurin inhibitor toxicity. The pervasiveness and rapid progression of microvascular lesions at 25 to 36 months suggest that attempts at reducing calcineurin inhibitor exposure should be made before two years posttransplant.
This article was published in Transplantation
and referenced in Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research