Author(s): Saltman B, Singh B, Hedvat CV, Wreesmann VB, Ghossein R
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Genetic screening studies suggest that genetic changes underlie progression from well differentiated to anaplastic thyroid cancers. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent cell cycle/apoptosis regulators contribute to cancer progression. METHODS: Tissue microarrarys (TMAs) were constructed from well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (WDPTC; n = 41), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC; n = 43), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC; n = 22). TMAs were immunostained for 7 different cell cycle/apoptosis-related genes (p53, Ki-67, bcl-2, mdm-2, cyclin D1, p21, and p27). RESULTS: p53 (0\%, 12\%, 32\%) and Ki-67 (5\%, 49\%, 82\%) were expressed with increasing frequency, and bcl-2 (68\%, 42\%, 0\%) and p21 (40\%, 7\%, 0\%) with decreasing frequency in WDPTC to PDTC and ATC, respectively (P < .001). Interestingly, mdm-2 (54\%, 5\%, 0\%) showed decreased expression along the progression axis (P < .001). p27 and cyclin D1 were expressed in <15\% of cases, with a trend toward decreasing expression from WDPTC to PDTC to ATC. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the presence of increasing genetic complexity with progressive dedifferentiation in thyroid cancer, with aberrant tumor suppressor activity and increased proliferative activity being most prevalent in ATC. The data also confirm the intermediate position of PDTC in the classification scheme of thyroid carcinomas.
This article was published in Surgery
and referenced in Journal of Thyroid Disorders & Therapy