Author(s): Rigatti P, Suardi N, Briganti A, Da Pozzo LF, Tutolo M,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: The management of patients with clinical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) remains challenging. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the removal of positive lymph nodes at [11C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan may have an impact on the prognosis of patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) and nodal recurrence after RP. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective analysis of 72 patients affected by BCR after RP associated with a nodal pathologic [11C]choline PET/CT scan. INTERVENTION: Patients underwent salvage lymph node dissection (LND). MEASUREMENTS: Biochemical response (BR) to treatment was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <0.2 ng/ml at 40 d after salvage LND. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses addressed time to and predictors of clinical recurrence (CR) after salvage LND, respectively. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall, 56.9\% of patients achieved BR. Mean and median follow-up after LND were 39.4 and 39.8 mo, respectively. The 5-yr BCR-free survival rate was 19\%. Preoperative PSA <4 ng/ml (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.12; p = 0.005), time to BCR <24 mo (HR: 7.52; p = 0.005), and negative lymph nodes at previous RP (HR: 0.19; p=0.04) represented independent predictors of BR. Overall, 5-yr CR-free and cancer-specific survival were 34\% and 75\%, respectively. At multivariable analyses, only PSA >4 ng/ml (HR: 2.13; p=0.03) and the presence of retroperitoneal uptake at PET/CT scan (HR=2.92; p=0.004) represented independent preoperative predictors of CR. Similarly, the presence of pathologic nodes in the retroperitoneum (HR: 2.78; p=0.02), higher number of positive lymph nodes (HR: 1.04; p=0.006), and complete BR to salvage LND (HR: 0.31; p=0.002) represented postoperative independent predictors of CR. Main limitations consisted of the lack of a control group and the heterogeneity of patients included in the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage LND is feasible in patients with BCR after RP and nodal pathologic uptake at [11C]choline PET/CT scan. Biochemical response after surgery can be achieved in a consistent proportion of patients. Although most patients invariably progressed to BCR after surgery at longer follow-up, 35\% of patients showed the absence of CR at 5 yr. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This article was published in Eur Urol
and referenced in Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy