Author(s): Zahn EM, Houde C, Benson L, Freedom RM
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Abstract The clinical course of 41 consecutive pediatric patients (mean age 7.6 +/- 5.8 years, weight 27 +/- 22 kg) who underwent percutaneous pericardial drain placement during a 3-year period were reviewed. The most common diagnoses were malignancy (20\%), postpericardiotomy syndrome (17\%), aseptic pericarditis (12\%), and patients recovering from a Fontan type of operation (12\%). Indications for drainage included increasing effusion size determined by 2-dimensional echocardiogram (48\%), clinical deterioration (33\%) and echocardiographic evidence of hemodynamic compromise (12\%). Only 3 (7\%) patients had clinical evidence of cardiac tamponade. Drainage catheter placement was accomplished percutaneously from the subxiphoid approach. Insertion was successful in all but 1 patient (98\%) and successful evacuation of the pericardial space was achieved in 93\% of patients. There was 1 death in a critically ill 2-week-old infant and 4 complications, 3 of which occurred in patients aged less than 2 years. Drainage catheters remained in position from 1 to 18 days (mean 3 +/- 3 days) with no late complications. There were 3 instances (7\%) of drainage catheter occlusion. These data support the notion that placement of a percutaneous pericardial catheter is safe and effective in providing definitive drainage of the pericardial space in the pediatric age group. Children younger than age 2 years may be at increased risk for complications.
This article was published in Am J Cardiol
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System