Author(s): Salih MA, AbdelGader AG, AlJarallah AA, Kentab AY, Alorainy IA,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. METHODS: Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. RESULTS: During the study period, 23 (22\%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male:female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67\%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57\%) patients, and in 6 children (26\%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39\%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labour, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78\%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in another 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26\%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17\%) had low protein C, which was associated with low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low protein S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of additional acquired antenatal and perinatal risk factors support a multifactorial disorder.
This article was published in Saudi Med J
and referenced in International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation