Author(s): Dewachter P, MoutonFaivre C, Hepner DL
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Abstract Perioperative anaphylaxis is a unique condition as a result of the additive cardiovascular effects of anesthetics on the cardiovascular disturbances of anaphylaxis. It occurs mainly in adulthood, primarily follows anesthetic induction, and for the most part, is an IgE-mediated pathomechanism. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and antibiotics are the main culprit drugs, while latex is now infrequently involved. The Ring and Messmer scale is a useful tool for demonstrating the clinical severity of perioperative immediate hypersensitivity and guiding its management. Grades III and IV are life-threatening and are referred to as anaphylaxis. Three different clinical patterns of grade III may be observed, where cardiovascular collapse is the cardinal sign. Grade IV presents as cardiac arrest. The initial diagnosis is presumptive, whereas the etiological assessment is linked to the clinical presentation, tryptase levels, and skin test results. Since anaphylaxis presents with significant hypovolemia and vasoplegia, aggressive fluid therapy and epinephrine are the cornerstones of management. Whenever possible, anesthetic discontinuation is also recommended. Scientific evidence in favor of preemptive therapeutic strategies to prevent anaphylaxis in the operative setting is lacking.
This article was published in Curr Allergy Asthma Rep
and referenced in Journal of Perioperative & Critical Intensive Care Nursing