Author(s): DiBona GF
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Abstract Increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) regulate the functions of the nephron, the vasculature, and the renin-containing juxtaglomerular granular cells. As increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system can also influence nephron and vascular function, it is important to understand the interactions between RSNA and the renin-angiotensin system in the control of renal function. These interactions can be intrarenal, that is, the direct (via specific innervation) and indirect (via angiotensin II) contributions of increased RSNA to the regulation of renal function. The effects of increased RSNA on renal function are attenuated when the activity of the renin-angiotensin system is suppressed or antagonized with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II-type AT1 receptor antagonists. The effects of intrarenal administration of angiotensin II are attenuated following renal denervation. These interactions can also be extrarenal, that is, in the central nervous system, wherein RSNA and its arterial baroreflex control are modulated by changes in activity of the renin-angiotensin system. In addition to the circumventricular organs, the permeable blood-brain barrier of which permits interactions with circulating angiotensin II, there are interactions at sites behind the blood-brain barrier that depend on the influence of local angiotensin II. The responses to central administration of angiotensin II type AT1 receptor antagonists, into the ventricular system or microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla, are modulated by changes in activity of the renin-angiotensin system produced by physiological changes in dietary sodium intake. Similar modulation is observed in pathophysiological models wherein activity of both the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems is increased (e.g., congestive heart failure). Thus, both renal and extrarenal sites of interaction between the renin-angiotensin system and RSNA are involved in influencing the neural control of renal function.
This article was published in Ann N Y Acad Sci
and referenced in Journal of Autacoids and Hormones