Author(s): Cribb AE, Miller M, Tesoro A, Spielberg SP, Cribb AE, Miller M, Tesoro A, Spielberg SP
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Abstract The hydroxylamine and nitroso metabolites formed by N4-oxidation of sulfonamides are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic reactions to this class of drugs. Idiosyncratic reactions to sulfonamides are characterized by multisystemic toxicity, including hepatitis, nephritis, dermatitis, and blood dyscrasias (aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis). We have previously shown that cytochrome P-450 in the liver metabolizes sulfamethoxazole to its hydroxylamine metabolite. In this paper we report the N4-oxidation of sulfamethoxazole by activated monocytes and neutrophils (human and canine) to form sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine and nitrosulfamethoxazole. The presumed nitroso intermediate was not detected. Purified myeloperoxidase and prostaglandin H synthase were also capable of mediating the oxidation of sulfamethoxazole. The present studies suggest that myeloperoxidase is responsible for the observed oxidation by phagocytic cells. Oxidation by neutrophils may play a role in agranulocytosis, and oxidation by monocytes may facilitate antigen presentation. Extrahepatic bioactivation of sulfonamides by peroxidases in phagocytic cells and other tissues may be important in determining the range of adverse reactions to sulfonamides that occur.
This article was published in Mol Pharmacol
and referenced in HIV: Current Research