Author(s): Konopleva M, Elstner E, McQueen TJ, Tsao T, Sudarikov A,
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Abstract The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor family that forms heterodimers with retinoid X receptor. These heterodimers bind to DNA and activate the transcription of target genes. Here, we report that the PPAR gamma receptor protein is expressed in primary myeloid and lymphoid leukemias and in lymphoma and myeloma cell lines. In this study, we compared the activity of several PPAR gamma ligands including BRL49653 (rosiglitazone), 15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J(2), and the novel triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid on leukemia cells. Exposure to these PPAR gamma ligands induced apoptosis in myeloid (U937 and HL-60) and lymphoid (Su-DHL, Sup-M2, Ramos, Raji, Hodgkin's cell lines, and primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia) cells. A similar exposure to these PPAR gamma ligands induced the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells. A combination of PPAR gamma ligands with a retinoid X receptor agonist (i.e., LG100268) or a retinoic acid receptor agonist (i.e., all trans-retinoic acid) enhanced differentiating and growth-inhibitory effects. 2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid induced differentiation and apoptosis with much greater potency than the other PPAR gamma ligands in established cell lines and primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples. Exposure to 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid induced mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activation, which was associated with apoptosis induction. In Bcl-2-overexpressing chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, the small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor HA14-1 sensitized these cells to 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that PPAR gamma ligation alone and in combination with retinoids holds promise as novel therapy for leukemias by activating the transcriptional activity of target genes that control apoptosis and differentiation in leukemias.
This article was published in Mol Cancer Ther
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology