alexa Persistence of phorate in soils: role of moisture, temperature, preexposure, and microorganisms.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Author(s): Singh N, Singh B, Dureja P, Sethunathan N

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Abstract In laboratory incubation studies with three soils of varying physicochemical characteristics, phorate was more persistent in nonflooded (60\% water holding capacity) soils than in flooded soils. Phorate sulphoxide was recovered as the only metabolite of phorate in nonflooded soils while three metabolites (diethyl dithiophosphate, triethyl dithiophosphate and an unidentified metabolite) were formed in flooded soils. Study indicates that in nonflooded soils phorate is degraded via oxidation while in flooded soils hydrolysis is the major degradation process. Degradation of phorate was accelerated by an increase in incubation temperature. Preexposure or repeated application of soils to phorate slightly decreased the persistence of phorate or its metabolites. Decreased persistence of phorate and its metabolites formed in nonsterile soils compared to sterile soils suggested the role of microorganisms in their transformation. This article was published in J Environ Sci Health B and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology

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