Author(s): Koomanachai P, Crandon JL, Banevicius MA, Peng L, Nicolau DP
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Abstract Tigecycline (TGC) is an extended-spectrum antibiotic with activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus strains, which are well-recognized pathogens in nosocomial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to characterize the exposure-response relationship for TGC against S. aureus in an immunocompromised BALB/c murine pneumonia model. Six S. aureus isolates were studied, and the TGC MICs for those isolates ranged from 0.125 to 0.5 mg/liter. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of TGC in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were evaluated, as was the level of protein binding of the compound in this murine species. Administration of TGC at 1.56 to 150 mg/kg of body weight/day in single or two to three divided doses was used in the efficacy studies. TGC displayed linear PK and had a mean half-life of 10.9 +/- 2.5 h. Efficacy was highly correlated with the area under the free concentration-time curve (fAUC)/MIC (r(2) = 0.93). The 80\% and 50\% effective exposure indexes and the stasis exposure index were similar between the isolates (means +/- standard deviations, 3.04 +/- 1.12, 1.84 +/- 1.3, and 1.9 +/- 1.5, respectively). Maximal efficacy was predicted at a 2.85-log(10)-CFU reduction. TGC appeared to accumulate in the interstitial space, as the ratios of the fAUC from 0 to 8 h of epithelial lining fluid to plasma were 7.02, 15.11, and 23.95 for doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively. TGC was highly effective in this murine pneumonia model. In light of current MIC distributions, the fAUC/MIC targets that we defined against S. aureus are readily achievable in humans given conventional doses of TGC.
This article was published in Antimicrob Agents Chemother
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta