Author(s): Kummar S, Gutierrez ME, Anderson LW, Klecker RW Jr, Chen A,
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Abstract PURPOSE: Batracylin (daniquidone), an ATP-insensitive topoisomerase I/II inhibitor, demonstrated wide interspecies variation in preclinical models consistent with formation of a toxic metabolite, N-acetyl-batracylin, following metabolism by N-acetyl-transferase 2 (NAT2). To minimize exposure to this toxic metabolite, this first-in-human study was conducted in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors or lymphomas demonstrated to have a slow NAT2 acetylator genotype. The objectives were to determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetics of batracylin and its metabolites. METHODS: Based on the MTD for rats, the most sensitive species, the starting dose was 5 mg/day for 7 days in 28-day cycles. Dose escalation followed accelerated titration design 4B, with restaging performed every 2 cycles. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were enrolled. Treatment was well tolerated; one patient experienced grade 3 toxicity (lymphopenia). Dose escalation was stopped at 400 mg/day due to grade 1 and 2 hemorrhagic cystitis. No objective responses were observed, but prolonged disease stabilization was observed in 2 patients, one with peritoneal mesothelioma (8 cycles) and another with adrenocortical cancer (18 cycles). Across an 80-fold range of doses, the ratios of systemic exposures for batracylin and N-acetyl batracylin were near 1. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacogenetically selected patients reached a dose that was 20-fold higher than the MTD in rats and 70 \% of the MTD in mice. This genotype-guided strategy was successful in safely delivering batracylin to patients. However, due to unexpected cystitis, not preventable by hydration, and in the absence of a stronger signal for antitumor activity, further development of batracylin has been stopped.
This article was published in Cancer Chemother Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology