Author(s): Wadelius M, Pirmohamed M, Wadelius M, Pirmohamed M
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Abstract Warfarin is an anticoagulant that is difficult to use because of the wide variation in dose required to achieve a therapeutic effect, and the risk of serious bleeding. Warfarin acts by interfering with the recycling of vitamin K in the liver, which leads to reduced activation of several clotting factors. Thirty genes that may be involved in the biotransformation and mode of action of warfarin are discussed in this review. The most important genes affecting the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of warfarin are CYP2C9 (cytochrome P(450) 2C9) and VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1). These two genes, together with environmental factors, partly explain the interindividual variation in warfarin dose requirements. Large ongoing studies of genes involved in the actions of warfarin, together with prospective assessment of environmental factors, will undoubtedly increase the capacity to accurately predict warfarin dose. Implementation of pre-prescription genotyping and individualized warfarin therapy represents an opportunity to minimize the risk of haemorrhage without compromising effectiveness.
This article was published in Pharmacogenomics J
and referenced in Molecular Biology: Open Access