Author(s): Lubomirov R, ArabAlameddine M, Rotger M, FayetMello A, Martinez R,
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: Etravirine (ETV) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, 2C9, and 2C19. Metabolites are glucuronidated by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). To identify the potential impact of genetic and non-genetic factors involved in ETV metabolism, we carried out a two-step pharmacogenetics-based population pharmacokinetic study in HIV-1 infected individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 144 individuals contributing 289 ETV plasma concentrations and four individuals contributing 23 ETV plasma concentrations collected in a rich sampling design. Genetic variants [n=125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] in 34 genes with a predicted role in ETV metabolism were selected. A first step population pharmacokinetic model included non-genetic and known genetic factors (seven SNPs in CYP2C, one SNP in CYP3A5) as covariates. Post-hoc individual ETV clearance (CL) was used in a second (discovery) step, in which the effect of the remaining 98 SNPs in CYP3A, P450 cytochrome oxidoreductase (POR), nuclear receptor genes, and UGTs was investigated. RESULTS: A one-compartment model with zero-order absorption best characterized ETV pharmacokinetics. The average ETV CL was 41 (l/h) (CV 51.1\%), the volume of distribution was 1325 l, and the mean absorption time was 1.2 h. The administration of darunavir/ritonavir or tenofovir was the only non-genetic covariate influencing ETV CL significantly, resulting in a 40\% [95\% confidence interval (CI): 13-69\%] and a 42\% (95\% CI: 17-68\%) increase in ETV CL, respectively. Carriers of rs4244285 (CYP2C19*2) had 23\% (8-38\%) lower ETV CL. Co-administered antiretroviral agents and genetic factors explained 16\% of the variance in ETV concentrations. None of the SNPs in the discovery step influenced ETV CL. CONCLUSION: ETV concentrations are highly variable, and co-administered antiretroviral agents and genetic factors explained only a modest part of the interindividual variability in ETV elimination. Opposing effects of interacting drugs effectively abrogate genetic influences on ETV CL, and vice-versa. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
This article was published in Pharmacogenet Genomics
and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics