alexa Pharmacokinetic considerations of new insulin formulations and routes of administration.
Biomedical Sciences

Biomedical Sciences

Journal of Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics

Author(s): Hoffman A, Ziv E

Abstract Share this page

Abstract There is a continuing search for improved insulin formulations in order to imitate as closely as possible the physiological pattern of insulin secretion, and thereby to minimise the complications of diabetes mellitus. The major advances achieved to date are in the area of human insulin analogue synthesis resulting from the introduction of recombinant DNA techniques, and in improved delivery systems that utilise noninvasive or minimally invasive modes of administration. To accommodate postprandial hyperglycaemia, monomeric insulin formulations have been developed, of which insulin lispro (the Lys-Pro analogue) is already approved for clinical use. These formulations have a rapid rate of absorption and, therefore, have to be administered at meal time (unlike the previous short-acting formulations). Their residence time is also about 2-fold shorter than regular human insulin; this minimises the risk of the excessive hypoglycaemic effect that characterises regular human insulin formulations. Certain proinsulin formulations with hepatoselective activity have been developed but were found to be poorly tolerated. The newer proinsulin molecules do not show hepato-selective properties. In order to generate basal insulin levels, peakless long-acting formulations have been developed, including: a soluble formulation (which upon subcutaneous administration, produces a 'depot-like' sustained release mechanism), albumin-bound insulin and cobalt-insulin hexamer formulations. To improve patient compliance the 'pen' device was developed for subcutaneous injections. Programmable infusion pumps were developed to avoid repetitive subcutaneous injections. Great efforts have been made in searching for noninvasive modes of insulin administration that will avoid the need for parenteral administration. These include: oral, colonic, rectal, nasal, ocular, buccal, pulmonary, uterine and transdermal routes of administration. Various enhancers have been tested to increase the bioavailability of each route. At present these alternative routes do not provide clinically relevant substitutes for the subcutaneous mode of administration. In conclusion, although the newer formulations provide certain advantages, there is still much to be done to further facilitate and improve insulin therapy. This article was published in Clin Pharmacokinet and referenced in Journal of Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

OMICS International Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version