alexa Pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in natural and experimental superficial compartments in animals and humans.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Author(s): Ryan DM

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Transcapillary exchange of antibiotics and other small molecules is diffusion driven and occurs in the capillary beds of the tissues. Small polar molecules are ionized at physiological pH and diffusion is pore-mediated. More lipophilic substances can also leave capillaries by the transcellular route. Splanchnic tissues have fenestrated capillary walls while somatic tissues have mainly micropores in their capillary walls. Under normal physiological conditions the ratio of capillary surface area to volume of fluid present (SA/V) is very large (> 100) and the rate of exchange of substances between capillaries, interstitial fluid and tissue fluid is extremely rapid. The structure of the interstitial space or ground substance, linking the capillary to the tissue cells, is designed to regulate the exchange of water, albumen and other solutes between the plasma and tissues. Interstitial space fluid (tissue fluid) is not simply an ultrafiltrate of plasma and has a specific chemical imbalance with plasma. Some antibiotics bind to serum albumen and it is claimed that this impairs their ability to penetrate into tissue fluids. However, the reduced concentration of albumen in the tissue fluid, relative to the plasma, is the main reason why percentage tissue penetration data based on total levels present are misleading and perpetuate the misconception that highly bound antibiotics (> 80\%) have a reduced penetration potential. The majority of infections are localized in extracellular fluid. Several models have been developed to sample serially the extracellular compartment. They have yielded diverse concentration/time profiles even for the same antibiotic at similar sites (skin and subcutaneous tissues). It has been shown that the various profiles are a direct consequence of compartment SA/V, which can range from > 100 to < 10. In the preclinical situation, the blister model has proven popular and reproducible but it should be remembered that the delayed profile seen is an artefact of blister geometry (SA/V < 10). On the evidence available it is likely that bacterial infections, in the presence of acute inflammation, will enhance the rate of entry of agents, while the reverse is true in areas of chronic inflammation where pathological barriers are already in place.
This article was published in J Antimicrob Chemother and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords