Author(s): Hashim H, Abrams P
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Abstract Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a symptomatic diagnosis. It is defined by the International Continence Society as the complaint of involuntary leakage associated with urgency and also with exertion, effort, sneezing and coughing. A search of medical databases revealed that only a small number of limited studies that assess the prevalence, epidemiology and treatment of MUI have been conducted. Most studies have looked separately at either stress urinary incontinence or urgency urinary incontinence. Thus, management of MUI involves a combination of treatments for both stress and urgency incontinence, but should concentrate initially on the most bothersome and/or predominant symptom. Initial management includes an accurate history and examination, which is supplemented by a bladder diary and quality-of-life questionnaire. Once a preliminary diagnosis is established, first-line therapy includes patient education and lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss. This is supplemented by pelvic floor muscle training and bladder training, which help with both components of MUI. Oral pharmacotherapy often acts synergistically with the previous treatments; however, only very few randomised, placebo-controlled trials have looked at the effects of pharmacotherapy on MUI. The two main classes of drugs are the antimuscarinics, which are effective in urgency incontinence, and the serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors, which are effective in stress incontinence. Combination of these two drug classes is a feasible option but has not been tested in any trials to date. Should these treatments fail, then patients should be referred for cystometry to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options available following urodynamics include invasive minor and major surgical procedures, which either treat the stress or urgency component of MUI but not both. Surgical procedures carry the risk of infection, haemorrhage and failure.
This article was published in Drugs
and referenced in Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research