Author(s): Ames MM, Moyer TP, Kovach JS, Moertel CG, Rubin J
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Abstract Plasma and urine concentrations of amygdalin, whole-blood concentrations of cyanide, and thiocyanate concentrations in serum and urine were determined in cancer patients following intravenous (4.5 g/m2) and oral (500-mg tablet) administration of amygdalin. To measure low plasma concentrations of amygdalin following oral administration a GC/MS assay was developed. Following intravenous administration, concentrations of parent drug as high as 1,401 microgram/ml were observed, with no increase in plasma concentrations of cyanide or serum concentrations of thiocyanate. Plasma elimination of amygdalin was best described by a two-compartment open model with a mean distributive phase half-life of 6.2 min, mean elimination phase half-life of 120.3 min, and mean clearance of 99.3 ml/min. Following oral administration of amygdalin, plasma concentrations were much lower, with peak values of less than 525 ng/ml. Cyanide concentrations increased to values as high as 2.1 microgram/ml whole blood. Thiocyanate concentrations did not increase for several days, plateauing at values as high as 38 microgram/ml serum. Ingestion of almonds by two patients taking oral amygdalin increased cyanide concentrations compared with values obtained after oral amygdalin alone.
This article was published in Cancer Chemother Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences