Author(s): Martinez M, McDermott P, Walker R
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Abstract The fluoroquinolones are a class of compounds that comprise a large and expanding group of synthetic antimicrobial agents. Structurally, all fluoroquinolones contain a fluorine molecule at the 6-position of the basic quinolone nucleus. Despite the basic similarity in the core structure of these molecules, their physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic characteristics and microbial activities can vary markedly across compounds. The first of the fluoroquinolones approved for use in animals, enrofloxacin, was approved in the late 1980s. Since then, five other fluoroquinolones have been marketed for use in animals in the United States, with others currently under investigation. This review focuses on the use of fluoroquinolones within veterinary medicine, providing an overview of the structure-activity relationship of the various members of the group, the clinical uses of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine, their pharmacokinetics and potential interspecies differences, an overview of the current understanding of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships associated with fluoroquinolones, a summary of toxicities that have been associated with this class of compounds, their use in both in human and veterinary species, mechanisms associated with the development of microbial resistance to the fluoroquinolones, and a discussion of fluoroquinolone dose optimization. Although the review contains a large body of basic research information, it is intended that the contents of this review have relevance to both the research scientist and the veterinary medical practitioner.
This article was published in Vet J
and referenced in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology