Author(s): Matthews DC, Appelbaum FR, Eary JF, Fisher DR, Durack LD,
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Abstract Delivery of targeted hematopoietic irradiation using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody may improve the outcome of marrow transplantation for advanced acute leukemia by decreasing relapse without increasing toxicity. We conducted a phase I study that examined the biodistribution of (131)I-labeled anti-CD45 antibody and determined the toxicity of escalating doses of targeted radiation combined with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CY) and 12 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) followed by HLA-matched related allogeneic or autologous transplant. Forty-four patients with advanced acute leukemia or myelodysplasia received a biodistribution dose of 0.5 mg/kg (131)I-BC8 (murine anti-CD45) antibody. The mean +/- SEM estimated radiation absorbed dose (centigray per millicurie of (131)I) delivered to bone marrow and spleen was 6.5 +/- 0.5 and 13.5 +/- 1.3, respectively, with liver, lung, kidney, and total body receiving lower amounts of 2.8 +/- 0.2, 1.8 +/- 0.1, 0.6 +/- 0.04, and 0.4 +/- 0.02, respectively. Thirty-seven patients (84\%) had favorable biodistribution of antibody, with a higher estimated radiation absorbed dose to marrow and spleen than to normal organs. Thirty-four patients received a therapeutic dose of (131)I-antibody labeled with 76 to 612 mCi (131)I to deliver estimated radiation absorbed doses to liver (normal organ receiving the highest dose) of 3.5 Gy (level 1) to 12.25 Gy (level 6) in addition to CY and TBI. The maximum tolerated dose was level 5 (delivering 10.5 Gy to liver), with grade III/IV mucositis in 2 of 2 patients treated at level 6. Of 25 treated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 7 survive disease-free 15 to 89 months (median, 65 months) posttransplant. Of 9 treated patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 3 survive disease-free 19, 54, and 66 months posttransplant. We conclude that (131)I-anti-CD45 antibody can safely deliver substantial supplemental doses of radiation to bone marrow (approximately 24 Gy) and spleen (approximately 50 Gy) when combined with conventional CY/TBI.
This article was published in Blood
and referenced in Anthropology