Author(s): Oboh G, Akinyemi AJ, Osanyinlusi FR, Ademiluyi AO, Boligon AA,
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Abstract ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sandpaper [Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae)] leaf has been reportedly used in folklore for the management/treatment of cardiovascular diseases with little/or no scientific basis for their action. This study sought to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of sandpaper leaf on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hypercholesterolemia as well as the effect of their phenolic extract on this enzyme in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phenolic extract was prepared, then, the inhibitory effect of the leaf extract on ACE was determined in vitro. Thereafter, the effect of dietary supplementation of sandpaper leaf on angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity in high cholesterol diet fed rats for 14 days was evaluated as well as some biochemical parameters. RESULTS: The result revealed that under in vitro condition, the phenolic extract inhibited ACE (IC50=14.7µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (0-10µg/mL). Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the sand paper leaves. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with sandpaper leaf (either 10\% or 20\%) caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (LDL-C), and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Reversed phase HPLC analysis of the extract revealed Quercitrin (43.7mg/g), chlorogenic acid (42.8mg/g) and caffeic acid (33.9mg/g) as the major phenolics in the leaf. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of ACE activity and prevention of hypercholesterolemia by sandpaper leaf could be part of the possible mechanism underlying its anti-hypertensive property which could lay credence to its use in folk medicine. However, these activities may be directly/indirectly attributed to the polyphenolics present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article was published in J Ethnopharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Glycomics & Lipidomics