alexa Phylogeny of the genus trichoderma based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 of the rDNA cluster
Genetics & Molecular Biology

Genetics & Molecular Biology

Fungal Genomics & Biology

Author(s): Kindermann J, ElAyouti Y, Samuels GJ, Kubicek CP

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Abstract Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal DNA were used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of species of Trichoderma sect. Pachybasium. To this end, 85 strains-including all the available ex-type strains-were analyzed. Parsimony analysis demonstrated that the section is nonmonophyletic, distributing the 85 strains among three main groups that were supported by bootstrap values. Group A comprises two clades (A1 and A2), with A1 including T. polysporum, T. piluliferum, and T. minutisporum, while A2 included T. hamatum, T. pubescens, and T. strigosum in addition to species previously included in sect. Trichoderma (i.e., T. viride, T. atroviride, and T. koningii). The ex-type strain of T. fasciculatum formed a separate branch basal to clade A. Clade B contained the sect. Pachybasium members T. harzianum, T. fertile, T. croceum, T. longipile, T. strictipile, T. tomentosum, T. oblongisporum, T. flavofuscum, T. spirale, and the anamorphs of Hypocrea semiorbis and H. cf. gelatinosa. Sequence differences among clades A1, A2, and B were in the same order of magnitude as between each of them and T. longibrachiatum, which was used as an outgroup in these analyses. Sequence differences within clades A1, A2, and B were considerably smaller: in some cases (i.e., T. virens and T. flavofuscum; T. strictipile and H. cf. gelatinosa), the ITS1-sequences were identical, suggesting conspecifity. In other cases (e.g., T. crassum and T. longipile; T. harzianum, T. inhamatum, T. croceum, T. fertile, and H. semiorbis; T. hamatum and T. pubescens; and T. viride, T. atroviride, and T. koningii) differences were in the range of 1-3 nt only, suggesting a very close phylogenetic relationship. The sequence of a previously described aggressive mushroom competitor group of T. harzianum strains (Th2) was strikingly different from that of the ex-type strain of T. harzianum and closely related species and is likely to be a separate species. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. This article was published in Fungal Genet Biol and referenced in Fungal Genomics & Biology

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