Author(s): Wu T, Zivanovic S, Draughon FA, Conway WS, Sams CE
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Abstract Chitinous material was extracted from mycelia of Aspergillus niger and Mucor rouxii grown in yeast peptone dextrose broth for 15 and 21 days, respectively. The extracted material was characterized for purity, degree of acetylation, and crystallinity and tested for antibacterial and eliciting properties. The maximum glucosamine level determined in the mycelium of A. niger was 11.10\% dw and in the mycelium of M. rouxii was 20.13\% dw. On the basis of the stepwise extraction of freeze-dried mycelia, it appeared that M. rouxii mycelia contained both chitin and chitosan, whereas A. niger contained only chitin. The yields of crude chitin from A. niger and M. rouxii were 24.01 and 13.25\%, respectively, and the yield of chitosan from M. rouxii was 12.49\%. Significant amounts (7.42-39.81\%) of glucan were associated with chitinous compounds from both species and could not be eliminated by the extraction method used. The degrees of acetylation were determined to be 76.53 and 50.07\% for chitin from A. niger and M. rouxii, respectively, and 19.5\% for M. rouxii chitosan. The crystallinity of fungal chitin and chitosan was estimated to be less intense than in corresponding materials from shrimp shells. The extracted chitin and chitosan in a concentration of 0.1\% reduced Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 2576 counts by 0.5-1.5 logs during a 4 day incubation in tryptic soy broth at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, all tested chitinous materials from fungal sources significantly reduced lesions caused by Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in harvested apples.
This article was published in J Agric Food Chem
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine