alexa Physiologic and clinical monitoring of spastic hypertonia.
Neurology

Neurology

International Journal of Neurorehabilitation

Author(s): Hinderer SR, Dixon K

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Spasticity has been defined as "a motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex, as one component of the upper motor neuron syndrome." Increased motor neuron excitability and enhanced stretch-evoked synaptic excitation of motor neurons are potential neurophysiologic mechanisms to explain this phenomenon. The relative contribution of these two distinct mechanisms likely varies depending on the location of the lesion in the central nervous system. The patient history is an important component of the clinical evaluation focusing on potential nociceptive inputs that can worsen spasticity (e.g., urinary tract infections, skin breakdown). Assessment of the impact of the spasticity on function (positive and negative), position, care of the patient, and pain should be pursued. Clinical examination of spasticity is performed using methods to evoke and quantify spastic reflex responses to muscle stretch stimuli and to observe the patient performing functional tasks to note the impact of spasticity on their performance. Treatment is based on the negative impact of the spasticity on the patient, severity of the problems, and whether the hypertonicity is focal or diffuse in distribution (see article by Elovic elsewhere in this issue). First-line treatments include elimination of nociceptive stimuli, range of motion, seating and positioning, and other physical modalities. If additional intervention is necessary, oral medications are implemented for widespread spasticity, whereas focal problems are treated with prolonged stretching and splinting or casting to maintain muscle stretch and optimal positioning. In more severe cases, invasive procedures may be needed to supplement other treatments. Neurolytic procedures are pursued for focal tone problems. For generalized hypertonicity, intrathecal pump administration of medications or surgical interruption of reflex pathways has been helpful. Ultimately, the clinician must systematically approach the evaluation and treatment of spasticity. As decisions regarding moving from less to more invasive treatments are discussed, the potential risks and side effects of treatment options must be weighed versus the potential benefits that the patient might receive to maintain a rational approach to the management of spasticity.
This article was published in Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am and referenced in International Journal of Neurorehabilitation

Relevant Expert PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords