alexa Physiological aspects of high-altitude pulmonary edema.
Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics

Author(s): Brtsch P, Mairburl H, Maggiorini M, Swenson ER

Abstract Share this page

Abstract High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) develops in rapidly ascending nonacclimatized healthy individuals at altitudes above 3,000 m. An excessive rise in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) preceding edema formation is the crucial pathophysiological factor because drugs that lower PAP prevent HAPE. Measurements of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air, of nitrites and nitrates in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and forearm NO-dependent endothelial function all point to a reduced NO availability in hypoxia as a major cause of the excessive hypoxic PAP rise in HAPE-susceptible individuals. Studies using right heart catheterization or BAL in incipient HAPE have demonstrated that edema is caused by an increased microvascular hydrostatic pressure in the presence of normal left atrial pressure, resulting in leakage of large-molecular-weight proteins and erythrocytes across the alveolarcapillary barrier in the absence of any evidence of inflammation. These studies confirm in humans that high capillary pressure induces a high-permeability-type lung edema in the absence of inflammation, a concept first introduced under the term "stress failure." Recent studies using microspheres in swine and magnetic resonance imaging in humans strongly support the concept and primacy of nonuniform hypoxic arteriolar vasoconstriction to explain how hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction occurring predominantly at the arteriolar level can cause leakage. This compelling but as yet unproven mechanism predicts that edema occurs in areas of high blood flow due to lesser vasoconstriction. The combination of high flow at higher pressure results in pressures, which exceed the structural and dynamic capacity of the alveolar capillary barrier to maintain normal alveolar fluid balance. This article was published in J Appl Physiol (1985) and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

  • 9th International Conference on Bioinformatics
    October 23-24, 2017 Paris, France
  • 9th International Conference and Expo on Proteomics
    October 23-25, 2017 Paris, France

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version