alexa Physiological effects of botulinum toxin in spasticity.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Gracies JM

Abstract Share this page

Abstract There is considerable evidence that injection of botulinum toxin (BTX) into muscles with spastic overactivity reduces resistance to passive movement in joints supplied by the injected muscles. The demonstration of improvement in active performance of the paretic limbs has been only anecdotal to date, and represents the most difficult challenge in research on BTX therapy in spastic paralysis. Data are reviewed that indicate several neurophysiological actions of BTX, other than the blocking of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular ending: effects on the central nervous system, including retrograde axonal transport, reduced motoneuronal excitability, action on central synapses such as decreased Renshaw inhibition and increased presynaptic inhibition; action on gamma motoneuronal endings; action on most active terminals; spread of BTX to neighboring muscles; spread of BTX effects to remote muscles. Several of these neurophysiological actions are likely to contribute to improvement in active movements, as they may antagonize the primary mechanisms of functional impairment in patients with spastic paralysis: weakness, spastic cocontraction, spastic dystonia, and muscle shortening. We review the evidence for reduction of spastic cocontraction in both the injected muscle and its antagonist, and for improvement of antagonist weakness after BTX injection. The capacity of intramuscular BTX to reduce spastic dystonia and lengthen shortened muscles is also discussed based on prior literature. When injected into the more overactive of a pair of spastic antagonists around a joint, BTX should affect all the main mechanisms impairing active function around the joint. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society This article was published in Mov Disord and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords