alexa Physiological modeling of age-specific changes in the pharmacokinetics of organic chemicals in children.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

Author(s): Price K, Haddad S, Krishnan K, Price K, Haddad S, Krishnan K

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Abstract Age-specific changes in the pharmacokinetics of chemicals are primarily due to differences in physiological and biochemical factors. For integrating the available information on the age-dependent changes in the physiological and biochemical factors, and for evaluating their combined influence on the pharmacokinetics of chemicals, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are potentially useful. The objectives of this study were, therefore, (1) to assemble information on age-specific differences in physiological parameters such as alveolar ventilation rate, cardiac output, tissue volumes, tissue blood flow rates, and tissue composition for children of various age groups, and (2) to incorporate these data within a PBPK model for simulating the inhalation pharmacokinetics of a highly metabolized, volatile organic chemical (furan) in children of specific age groups (6, 10, and 14 yr old). The age-specific data on various physiological parameters were assembled following a review of the relevant literature and the hepatic metabolism rate of furan was set equal to the liver blood flow rate in adults and children. The blood:air and tissue:blood partition coefficients were calculated using molecular structure information along with the data on the blood and tissue composition (lipid and water contents) in children and adults. The PBPK model was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics of furan in adults and children (6, 10, and 14 yr old) exposed continuously for 30 h to 1 microgram/L of this chemical in inhaled air. The model simulations suggest that, for the same exposure conditions, the blood concentration of furan is likely to be greater in children by a factor of 1.5 (at steady state) than in adults, and the maximal factor of adult-children differences in liver concentration of furan metabolite is about 1.25. The PBPK model framework developed in this study should be useful for predicting the adult-children differences in internal dose of chemicals for risk assessment applications. This article was published in J Toxicol Environ Health A and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

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