alexa Placental abruption in term and preterm gestations: evidence for heterogeneity in clinical pathways.


Journal of Womens Health Care

Author(s): Ananth CV, Getahun D, Peltier MR, Smulian JC

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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of associations of acute and chronic processes with abruption in preterm and term gestations. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on women that delivered singleton live births and stillbirths at 20 or more weeks of gestation in the United States, 1995-2002 (n = 30,378,902). Rates of 1) acute-inflammation-associated clinical conditions (premature rupture of membranes and intrauterine infection); 2) chronic processes associated with vascular dysfunction or chronic inflammation (chronic and pregnancy-induced hypertension, preexisting or gestational diabetes, small for gestational age, and maternal smoking); and 3) both acute and chronic processes, were examined among women with and without abruption. Rates were examined separately among preterm (< 37 weeks) and term births, with adjustment for confounders. Relative risk (RR) for aforementioned groups in relation to abruption was derived from multivariate logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: At preterm gestation, the rates of acute-inflammation-associated conditions were higher among women with than without abruption (12.0\% compared with 10.2\%; RR 1.38, 95\% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.42). At term, acute-inflammation-associated conditions were present in 4.2\% and 3.3\% of births with and without abruption, respectively (RR 1.39, 95\% CI 1.33-1.45). At preterm gestation, the rates of chronic processes were 43.9\% and 30.0\% among women with and without abruption, respectively (RR 1.87, 95\% CI 1.85-1.90). At term, the corresponding rates of chronic processes were 41.0\% and 22.7\%, respectively (RR 2.37, 95\% CI 2.34-2.41). Association between both acute and chronic processes and abruption are similar to those of acute-inflammation-associated conditions. CONCLUSION: Among women with placental abruption, conditions associated with acute inflammation are more prevalent at preterm than term gestations, whereas chronic processes are present throughout gestation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2. This article was published in Obstet Gynecol and referenced in Journal of Womens Health Care

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