Author(s): Briand V, Badaut C, Cot M, Briand V, Badaut C, Cot M
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Abstract Co-infection with malaria and HIV in pregnant women is particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa and has serious consequences for both mother and newborn child. Numerous studies have been published on the effects in pregnancy of HIV on malaria infection and on the effects of malaria on HIV infection. The increased prevalence and intensity of parasitaemia (placental and peripheral infection and parasite density) in HIV-infected women is well established. Similarly, malaria infection seems to be associated with higher viral loads. However, there is still uncertainty as to the influence of malaria on the clinical course of HIV infection, mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and the consequences of co-infection on post-neonatal infant morbidity and mortality. These questions require further investigation. In terms of prevention, intermittent preventive treatment with two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been found less effective in preventing malaria in HIV-infected than uninfected women, and a higher dosage (such as monthly SP) has been recommended. Regarding malaria, there is also a lack of clear recommendations for women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and anti-malarial-anti-retroviral interactions are not well understood. Multi-centre clinical trials should be undertaken to investigate effective, coherent and well-tolerated strategies to prevent malaria in HIV-infected women. Safe alternatives to SP should be identified and evaluated rapidly. Finally, a central pharmaco-vigilance network should be instituted to report adverse effects.
This article was published in Ann Trop Paediatr
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research