Author(s): Satoh T, Fantl WJ, Escobedo JA, Williams LT, Kaziro Y
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Abstract A series of pieces of evidence have shown that Ras protein acts as a transducer of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-mediated signaling pathway: (i) formation of Ras.GTP is detected immediately on PDGF stimulation, and (ii) a dominant inhibitory mutant Ras, as well as a neutralizing anti-Ras antibody, can interfere with PDGF-induced responses. On the other hand, several signal transducing molecules including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma) bind directly to the PDGF receptor and become tyrosine phosphorylated. Recently, it was shown that specific phosphorylated tyrosines of the PDGF receptor are responsible for interaction between the receptor and each signaling molecule. However, the roles of these signaling molecules have not been elucidated, and it remains unclear which molecules are implicated in the Ras pathway. In this study, we measured Ras activation in cell lines expressing mutant PDGF receptors that are deficient in coupling with specific molecules. In fibroblast CHO cells, a mutant receptor (Y708F/Y719F [PI3-K-binding sites]) was unable to stimulate Ras, whereas another mutant (Y739F [the GAP-binding site]) could do so, suggesting an indispensable role of PI3-K or a protein that binds to the same sites as PI3-K for PDGF-stimulated Ras activation. By contrast, both of the above mutants were capable of stimulating Ras protein in a pro-B-cell line, BaF3. Furthermore, a mutant receptor (Y977F/Y989F [PLC gamma-binding sites]) could fully activate Ras, and the direct activation of protein kinase C and calcium mobilization had almost no effect on the GDP/GTP state of Ras in this cell line. These results suggest that, in the pro-B-cell transfectants, each of the above pathways (PI3-K, GAP, and PLC gamma) can be eliminated without a loss of Ras activation. It remains unclear whether another unknown essential pathway which regulates Ras protein exists within BaF3 cells. Therefore, it is likely that several different PDGF receptor-mediated signaling pathways function upstream of Ras, and the extent of the contribution of each pathway for the regulation of Ras may differ among different cell types.
This article was published in Mol Cell Biol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology