Author(s): Jaguin M, Houlbert N, Fardel O, Lecureur V
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Abstract Monocytes/macrophages (MΦ), considered as plastic cells, can differentiate into either a pro-inflammatory (M1) subtype, also known as a classically activated subtype, or an anti-inflammatory alternatively activated subtype (M2) according to their microenvironment. Phenotypic markers of mouse polarized MΦ have been extensively studied, whereas their human counterparts remain less characterized. The main goal of this study was therefore to carefully characterize phenotypic and genomic markers of primary human MΦ generated from M-CSF-treated blood monocytes and polarized towards M1 or M2 subtype upon the action of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ (for M1) or interleukin (IL)-4 (for M2). Membrane expression of the markers CD80 and CD200R was found to be specific of human M1 and M2 polarized MΦ, respectively, whereas, by contrast, mannose receptor (CD206) expression did not discriminate between M1 and M2. mRNA expression analysis further identified six markers of M1 polarization (IL-12p35, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL5, CCR7 and IDO1), five markers of M2 polarization (TGF-β, CCL14, CCL22, SR-B1 and PPARγ) and transcription factors involved in MΦ polarization. Ability of human M-CSF-generated MΦ to polarize toward M1 or M2 subtype was also associated with enhanced secretion of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12p40, CXCL10 and IL-10 (for M1) or CCL22 (for M2). Moreover, the comparison of the expression of M1 markers in M-CSF- and GM-CSF-MΦ polarized towards M1 subtype has revealed similarities. In conclusion, we demonstrated that human M-CSF MΦ can polarize toward a M1 type after IFNγ/LPS stimulation. Moreover, the M1 and M2 markers of human polarized MΦ identified in the present study may be useful to better identify human MΦ subtypes, particularly at the tissue level, in order to better understand their respective roles in the development of pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Cell Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology