Author(s): Dutta T, Agashe HB, Garg M, Balakrishnan P, Kabra M,
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Abstract Cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system, in particular monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Mac) serve as a reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are believed to be responsible for its dissemination throughout the body and especially into the brain. Treatment of HIV infection, therefore, must reach these cells in addition to the lymphocytes. The purpose of the present study is to develop poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimer-based nanocontainers for targeting of efavirenz (EFV) to Mo/Mac. Fifth generation PPI dendrimer, t-Boc-glycine conjugated PPI dendrimer (TPPI) and mannose conjugated dendrimers were synthesized and characterized. While the haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity of PPI dendrimer was found to be very high, the toxicity of t-Boc-glycine conjugated dendrimer and mannose conjugated dendrimers were found to be negligible. The entrapment efficiency of mannose conjugated dendrimer was found to be 47.4\%, followed by that of PPI dendrimer (32.15\%) and t-Boc-glycine conjugated dendrimer (23.1\%). The in vitro drug release profile shows that while PPI dendrimer releases the drug by 24 h, the dendrimer-based nanocontainers prolong the release rate up to 144 h (83 +/- 0.4\% in case of t-Boc-glycine conjugated dendrimer and 91 +/- 0.3\% in mannose conjugated dendrimer). The cellular uptake of EFV was found to be both concentration and time dependent. Significant increase in cellular uptake of EFV by Mo/Mac cells were observed in case of mannose conjugated dendrimer which is 12 times higher than that of free drug and 5.5 times higher than that of t-Boc-glycine conjugated dendrimer. While mannose conjugated dendrimer was taken up by the lectin receptors of the cells, phagocytosis of t-Boc-glycine conjugated dendrimer might be responsible for its enhanced uptake. Results suggest that the proposed carriers hold potential to increase the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy.
This article was published in J Drug Target
and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology