Author(s): Masutani M, Nakagama H, Sugimura T
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Abstract Carcinogenesis involves multiple steps and pathways with functional alterations in a variety of genes. There is accumulating evidence that a deficiency of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 leads to DNA repair defects, genomic instability, failure of induction of cell death and modulation of gene transcription. PARP-1 also supports the growth of tumor cells in certain situations. Genetic analyses of the PARP-1 gene have demonstrated alterations in neoplasms, and a mutation affecting the conserved amino acid E251 in germ cell tumors, as well as an association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism V762A with risk of prostate cancer. Recent development of a selective inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), the enzyme primarily responsible for degradation of poly(ADP-ribose), and PARG-deficient animals should facilitate studies of the relationship of poly(ADP-ribose) with carcinogenesis. Inhibitors of PARP have also suggested roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, and a promoter haplotype of PARP-1 confers a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Further analysis of PARP-1, PARG and other PARP family genes should extend our understanding of the pathogenesis of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, there is potential for sensitization to chemo- and radiation therapy of cancers as well as the treatment of autoimmune disease with development of stronger PARP inhibitors.
This article was published in Cell Mol Life Sci
and referenced in International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy