Author(s): Toms LM, Mazaheri M, Brommer S, Clifford S, Drage D,
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Abstract PBDE concentrations are higher in children compared to adults with exposure suggested to include dust ingestion. Besides the home environment, children spend a great deal of time in school classrooms which may be a source of exposure. As part of the "Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH)" project, dust samples (n=28) were obtained in 2011/12 from 10 Brisbane, Australia metropolitan schools and analysed using GC and LC-MS for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) -17, -28, -47, -49, -66, -85, -99, -100, -154, -183, and -209. Σ11PBDEs ranged from 11-2163 ng/g dust; with a mean and median of 600 and 469 ng/g dust, respectively. BDE-209 (range n.d. -2034 ng/g dust; mean (median) 402 (217)ng/g dust) was the dominant congener in most classrooms. Frequencies of detection were 96\%, 96\%, 39\% and 93\% for BDE-47, -99, -100 and -209, respectively. No seasonal variations were apparent and from each of the two schools where XRF measurements were carried out, only two classroom items had detectable bromine. PBDE intake for 8-11 year olds can be estimated at 0.094 ng/day BDE-47; 0.187 ng/day BDE-99 and 0.522ng/day BDE-209 as a result of ingestion of classroom dust, based on mean PBDE concentrations. The 97.5\% percentile intake is estimated to be 0.62, 1.03 and 2.14 ng/day for BDEs-47, -99 and -209, respectively. These PBDE concentrations in dust from classrooms, which are higher than in Australian homes, may explain some of the higher body burden of PBDEs in children compared to adults when taking into consideration age-dependant behaviours which increase dust ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Environ Res
and referenced in Arts and Social Sciences Journal