alexa Potential role of photodynamic techniques combined with new generation flexible ureterorenoscopes and molecular markers for the management of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract
Surgery

Surgery

Medical & Surgical Urology

Author(s): Rouprt M, Audenet F

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OBJECTIVES: •  To discuss how the development of new generation flexible ureterorenoscopes in combination with photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) improves the assessment of urothelial cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UCC). •  Ultimately, this may allow accurate tumour classification and the ability to select which patients would benefit from conservative treatment as opposed to radical surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: •  We conducted an exhaustive Pubmed literature search using a combination of keywords including: ureterorenoscopy, UUT-UCC diagnosis, PDD, narrow band imaging, conservative treatment UUT-UCC and molecular urinalysis. •  We then selected salient high calibre articles relevant to our objective. RESULTS: •  We give specific consideration to anatomical aspects of UUT-UCC investigation, PDD in UCC, aminolevulinic acid and its derivatives, autofluorescence, narrow band imaging, molecular marker analysis and the recent advances in ureterorenoscopic technology. •  The traditional pitfalls of UUT-UCC diagnosis, namely poor visualisation and difficulty in obtaining representative histological samples, are being circumvented by the introduction of modern digital flexible ureteroscopes that can be combined with PDD and molecular analysis to improve tumour classification, deferring to conservative treatment accordingly. CONCLUSION: •  The accuracy of the diagnostic work-up of UUT-UCC is improving due to advances in technology, pharmaceutical agents and incorporation of molecular markers, all factors allowing us to characterise tumours of the UUT more definitively.

This article was published in BJU Int and referenced in Medical & Surgical Urology

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