Author(s): Ismail MF, Elmeshad AN, Salem NA
Abstract Share this page
Abstract BACKGROUND: To sustain the effect of rivastigmine, a hydrophilic cholinesterase inhibitor, nanobased formulations were prepared. The efficacy of the prepared rivastigmine liposomes (RLs) in comparison to rivastigmine solution (RS) was assessed in an aluminium chloride (AlCl(3))-induced Alzheimer's model. METHODS: Liposomes were prepared by lipid hydration (F1) and heating (F2) methods. Rats were treated with either RS or RLs (1 mg/kg/day) concomitantly with AlCl(3) (50 mg/kg/day). RESULTS: The study showed that the F1 method produced smaller liposomes (67.51 ± 14.2 nm) than F2 (528.7 ± 15.5 nm), but both entrapped the same amount of the drug (92.1\% ± 1.4\%). After 6 hours, 74.2\% ± 1.5\% and 60.8\% ± 2.3\% of rivastigmine were released from F1 and F2, respectively. Both RLs and RS improved the deterioration of spatial memory induced by AlCl(3), with RLs having a superior effect. Further biochemical measurements proved that RS and RLs were able to lower plasma C-reactive protein, homocysteine and asymmetric dimethy-larginine levels. RS significantly attenuated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, whereas Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity was enhanced compared to the AlCl(3)-treated animals; however, RLs succeeded in normalization of AChE and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities. Gene-expression profile showed that cotreatment with RS to AlCl(3)-treated rats succeeded in exerting significant decreases in BACE1, AChE, and IL1B gene expression. Normalization of the expression of the aforementioned genes was achieved by coadministration of RLs to AlCl(3)-treated rats. The profound therapeutic effect of RLs over RS was evidenced by nearly preventing amyloid plaque formation, as shown in the histopathological examination of rat brain. CONCLUSION: RLs could be a potential drug-delivery system for ameliorating Alzheimer's disease.
This article was published in Int J Nanomedicine
and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability