Author(s): Wuillemin WA, te Velthuis H, Lubbers YT, de Ruig CP, Eldering E,
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Abstract Activation of the complement system may contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Hence, an effective inhibitor of complement might be useful to reduce tissue damage. Some glycosaminoglycans (GAG), such as heparin, are known to inhibit the interaction of C1q with activators and the assembly of the classical and the alternative pathway C3 convertases. Furthermore, they may potentiate C1 inhibitor-mediated inactivation of C1s. To search for potential complement inhibitors, we systematically investigated the complement inhibitory properties of various synthetic and naturally occurring GAG (dextran sulfates 500,000 and 5,000, heparin, N-acetylheparin, heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfates A and C). First, we assessed the effect of GAG on the second-order rate constant of the inactivation of C1s by C1 inhibitor. This rate constant increased 6- to 130-fold in the presence of the GAG, dextran sulfate being the most effective. Second, all tested GAG were found to reduce deposition of C4 and C3 on immobilized aggregated human IgG (AHG) and to reduce fluid phase formation of C4b/c and C3b/c in recalcified plasma upon incubation with AHG. Dextran sulfate again was found to be most effective. We conclude that GAG modulate complement activation in vitro and that the low molecular weight dextran sulfate (m.w. 5000) may be a candidate for pharmacologic manipulation of complement activation via potentiation of C1 inhibitor.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases