Author(s): McCullough PA
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Abstract Heart failure is a complex mechanical and neurohormonal syndrome where the left ventricle fails as a pump, resulting in stasis of blood in the lungs and the periphery resulting in the cardial features of effort intolerance, fatigue, and peripheral edema. As part of the neurohormonal and local mechanical strain, tissue macrophages resident in the myocardium secrete galectin-3 which is a paracrine and endocrine factor which stimulates additional macrophages, pericytes, myofibroblasts, and fibroblasts to proliferate and secrete procollagen I which is irreversibly crosslinked resulting in myocardial fibrosis. In the general population, normal plasma concentrations of galectin-3 are <11.0 ng/mL. Galectin-3 measured in blood has been shown to: 1) identify increased risk for new onset heart failure in healthy middle-aged adults; 2) predict cardiac failure in patients after acute coronary syndromes; 3) help establish the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in patients presenting with exercise intolerance; and 4) aid in the prognosis of heart failure with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. This manuscript will present practical real case management in these applications to highlight the importance of this new in vitro diagnostic test.
This article was published in Clin Chem Lab Med
and referenced in Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis