Author(s): Mounsey RA, Pang CY, Forrest C
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Abstract Musculocutaneous regional and distal flaps have become an important tool available to the head and neck surgeon. Vascularized autogenous muscle transplants allow single-stage reconstruction of complex defects. Ischemic muscle necrosis is a well-recognized complication with serious potential morbidity. It has been shown that myocardial muscle is protected from ischemic damage by brief periods of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion subsequent to prolonged ischemia. This is called preconditioning. To our knowledge, this technique has never been extrapolated to skeletal muscle. This article presents a discussion of preconditioning and the potential benefits of this new technique as a means to enhance skeletal muscle survival to sustained normothermic global ischemia. Theories behind ischemic muscle injury are presented. A review of the development of preconditioning in myocardial muscle is discussed. Experimental models used to investigate this phenomenon are also presented. In addition, results of our laboratory investigations using the latissimus dorsi porcine model are discussed. Preconditioning is a new, nonpharmacologic means to improve muscle flap survival. This simple technique may have great clinical application in reducing ischemic muscle necrosis in regional and distal muscle transplantation.
This article was published in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
and referenced in Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research