Author(s): Liu Y, Kosaka A, Ikeura M, Kohanbash G, FellowsMayle W,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: As therapies for systemic cancer improve and patients survive longer, the risk for brain metastases increases. We evaluated whether immune mechanisms are involved in the development of brain metastasis. METHODS: We conducted our studies using BALB/c mice bearing syngeneic 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma cells in the mammary gland. RESULTS: The brains of mice bearing 4T1 tumors at day 14 had no detectable metastatic tumor cells but presented with marked accumulation of bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells, which express high levels of inflammatory chemokines S100A8 and S100A9. In vitro, S100A9 attracts 4T1 cells through Toll-like receptor 4 and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells through Toll-like receptor 4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Systemic treatment of 4T1-bearing mice with anti-Gr1 (RB6-8C5) monoclonal antibody reduces accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells in the day-14 premetastatic brain as well as subsequent brain metastasis of 4T1 cells detected on day 30. Furthermore, treatment of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice with the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib or genetic disruption of cyclooxygenase-2 in 4T1 cells inhibits the inflammatory chemokines and infiltration of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells in the premetastatic brain and subsequent formation of brain metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the primary tumor induces accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells in the brain to form "premetastatic soil" and inflammation mediators, such as S100A9, that attract additional myeloid cells as well as metastatic tumor cells. Celecoxib and anti-Gr1 treatment may be useful for blockade of these processes, thereby preventing brain metastasis in patients with breast cancer.
This article was published in Neuro Oncol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology