alexa Prenatal care and maternal health during adolescent pregnancy: a review and meta-analysis.
Haematology

Haematology

Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion

Author(s): Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Belsky DH

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Abstract PURPOSE: A meta-analysis and review of pregnancy complications and behavioral risk factors associated with infant low birth weight and other poor outcomes which occur during adolescent pregnancy was undertaken using the published literature. METHODS: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: 1) utilized a clearly defined sample of teenagers 2) provided numeric data on complications of interest or the proportions needed to compute this information 3) included a control or comparison group. RESULTS: Many behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking and drug use) appeared to be less prevalent among teenage gravidas, particularly when the young women were ethnic minorities. An increased risk of preterm delivery was associated with young maternal age in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, risk of cesarean delivery was reduced for teenagers and there was a secular decline in maternal anemia and pregnancy induced hypertension in comparison to the risk sustained by more mature women. Programs of comprehensive prenatal care appeared to have the potential to diminish risk of many complications. In the developing world, teenagers were at increased risk of maternal anemia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Although future research efforts will need to address the issues of bias inherent in much of the published research, the published literature suggests that prenatal care regimens which provide social and behavioral services along with medical care could improve both the health of the mother and the outcome of her pregnancy. PIP: A meta-analysis of pregnancy complications and behavioral risk factors associated with infant low birth weight during adolescent pregnancy was undertaken using the published literature. Studies were included which 1) utilized a clearly defined sample of teenagers 2) provided numeric data on complications 3) included a control or comparison group. Many behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking and drug use) appeared to be less prevalent among teenage gravidas, particularly when the young women were ethnic minorities. Teenagers enrolled in comprehensive programs of prenatal care showed a diminished risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in comparison to those enrolled in traditional care programs. The summary relative risk for PIH with comprehensive prenatal care was 0.59. Current publications indicated a slight, but not statistically significant, recent diminution in risk of anemia for those with young maternal age (Summary Relative Risk = 0.80). There was no overall increase in risk of anemia with young maternal age (Summary Relative Risk = 1.13). The overall relative risk for the eight controlled clinical studies reporting information on maternal anemia was 2.00 for a significant overall association between anemia and young maternal age, both currently in developing countries and in the past in the developed world. Apart from disproportion in young black women, other complications of labor and delivery where the relative risk was at least 10\% higher in teenagers compared with mature women included fever, seizures, and, for whites, fetal distress. Rates at least 10\% lower included those for placenta previa, precipitous labor, breech or malpresentation, and, for blacks, cord prolapse and complications of anaesthesia. Overall, the summary relative risk showed a diminution in preterm delivery with comprehensive care, after adjustment for study and time (Summary Relative Risk = 0.81). The published literature suggests that prenatal care regiments which provide social and behavioral services along with medical care could improve both the health of the mother and the outcome of her pregnancy.
This article was published in J Adolesc Health and referenced in Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion

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