Author(s): Jaeggi ET, Hornberger LK, Smallhorn JF, Fouron JC
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review the pattern of presentation, management and outcome of fetal complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) associated with major structural congenital heart disease (CHD), when compared to isolated CAVB. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the medical records and echocardiograms of all CAVB cases, diagnosed prenatally at two tertiary care centers between the years 1990 and 2002. RESULTS: Of a total of 59 consecutive fetal cases of CAVB, 24 (41\%) had underlying major CHD, mainly left isomerism (n = 18) and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (cc-TGA) (n = 3). When compared to isolated CAVB (n = 35), cases with CHD were detected earlier (21 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 6 weeks; P < 0.02) and-despite comparable heart rates-more often had fetal hydrops (38\% vs. 9\%; P < 0.02), while pregnancy continuation (66\% vs. 94\%; P < 0.02) or prenatal treatment (19\% vs. 64\%; P < 0.001) was less likely. Of 16 CHD cases with pregnancy continuation, beta-inotropic treatment of fetal bradycardia was attempted in three cases: all had left isomerism and died early postnatally. Livebirth and 1-year survival rates of CAVB with CHD were 56\% and 19\%, respectively, when compared to isolated CAVB with 88\% and 75\%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The four neonatal survivors (one left isomerism, three cc-TGA) had heart rates persistently > 60 bpm throughout gestation and 3/4 underwent a biventricular repair. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal CAVB with CHD continues to be associated with a poor outcome, in particular in the presence of left isomerism and fetal heart rates < 60 bpm. Copyright (c) 2005 ISUOG.
This article was published in Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology