Author(s): Johansson K, Nuutila L, Virtanen H, Katajisto J, Salanter S
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Abstract AIMS: This paper presents a systematic review whose aim was to describe the scope and methods of the current literature on preoperative patient education and to identify the effects of this education. BACKGROUND: Preoperative patient education is a common and important intervention in surgical nursing, yet there is very limited systematic evidence on its precise role. METHODS: The Medline, CINAHL, Eric, Psycinfo and Social Sciences Index databases and the Cochrane Library were searched, covering the period from the beginning of each database to April 2003. Studies were included if they concerned adult orthopaedic patients, preoperative nursing patient education and were based on randomized controlled or clinical trials. Meta-analysis was carried out where appropriate. RESULTS: We identified 11 articles involving 1044 participants. Most studies included one experimental and one control group; only two had more than one experimental and control group. The educational interventions varied widely, but the majority were based on written materials alone, or written materials in combination with other teaching methods. The most common outcome measures related to pain, knowledge, anxiety, exercises and length of stay, and the least common to self-efficacy and empowerment. The methodological quality of the studies varied. Almost all reported one or more statistically significant effects. Based on the findings of the meta-analysis, preoperative education appears to have some impacts on patients' anxiety and knowledge levels. CONCLUSIONS: The review clearly highlights the need for well-designed, methodologically sound research into the outcomes of patient education. It also points to the need to study patient education from the point of view of empowerment.
This article was published in J Adv Nurs
and referenced in Journal of Nursing & Care